How to measure current
- an overview or tutorial about how to measure electrical current with a digital multimeter (DMM) or an analogue multimeter. This includes how to direct electrical current and how to measure ac current with a multimeter.
Multimeter Tutorial Includes:
Analogue multimeter DMM digital multimeter Basic instructions on how to use a multimeter Multimeter tutorial and video Making a multimeter voltage measurement How to measure current with a multimeter Making a multimeter resistance measurement Simple diode and transistor test Testing and fault finding a transistor circuit
It is often necessary to know how to measure current using a multimeter. Current measurements are easy to make, but they are done in a slightly different way to the way in which voltage and other measurements are made. However current measurements often need to be made to find out whether a circuit is operating correctly, or to discover other facts associated with its current consumption.
... both digital and analogue multimeters are able to measure current....
Current measurements can be made with a variety of test instruments, but the most widely used pieces of test equipment for making current measurements is a digital multimeter. These items of test equipment are widely available and at very reasonable prices.
Basics of current measurement
Current measurements are made in a different way to voltage and other measurements. Current consists of a flow of electrons around a circuit, and it is necessary to be able to monitor the overall flow of electrons. In very simple circuit is shown below. In this there is a battery, a bulb which can be used as an indicator and a resistor. To change the level of current flowing in the circuit it is possible to change the resistance, and the amount of current flowing can be gauged by the brightness of the bulb.
A simple circuit in which to measure current
When using a multimeter to measure current, the only way that can be used to detect the level of current flowing is to break into the circuit so that the current passes through the meter. Although this can be difficult at times, it is the best option. A typical current measurement can be made as shown below. From this it can be seen that the circuit in which the current is flowing has to be broken and the multimeter inserted into the circuit. In some circuits where current may often need to be measured, terminals with a shorting link may be added to facilitate the current measurement.
How to measure current using a multimeter
In order that the multimeter does not alter the operation of the circuit when it is used to measure current, the resistance of the meter must be as low as possible. For measurements of around an amp, the resistance of a meter should be much less than an ohm. For example if a meter had a resistance of one ohm, and a current of one amp was flowing, then it would develop a voltage of one volt across it. For most measurements this would be unacceptably high. Therefore resistances of meters used to measure current are normally very low.
How to measure current with an analogue multimeter
It is quite easy to use an analogue meter to measure electrical current. There are a few minor differences in way that current measurements are made, but the same basic principles are used.
... analogue multimeters are also able to measure current easily and accurately....
When using the meter it is possible to follow a number of simple steps:
- Insert the probes into the correct connections - this is required because there may be a number of different connections that can be used. Be sure to get the right connections as there may be separate connections for very low or very high current ranges.
- Set switch to the correct measurement type (i.e. to measure current) and range for the measurement to be made. When selecting the range, ensure that the maximum for the particular range chosen is above that anticipated. The range on the multimeter can be reduced later if necessary. However by selecting a range that is too high, it prevents the meter being overloaded and any possible damage to the movement of the meter itself.
- When taking the reading, optimise the range for the best reading. If possible adjust it so that the maximum deflection of the meter can be gained. In this way the most accurate reading will be gained.
- Once the reading is complete, it is a wise precaution to place the probes into the voltage measurement sockets and turn the range to maximum voltage position. In this way if the meter is accidentally connected without thought for the range to be used, there is little chance of damage to the meter. This may not be true if it left set for a current reading, and the meter is accidentally connected across a high voltage point!
How to measure current with a digital multimeter
To measure current with a digital multimeter it is possible to follow a few simple steps:
- Turn the meter on
- Insert the probes into the correct connections - in many meters there are a number of different connections for the probes. Often one labelled common into which the black probe is normally placed. The other probe should be entered into the correct socket for the current measurement to be made. Sometimes there is a special connection for current measurements, and sometimes a separate one for either low or high current measurements. Select the correct one for the current measurement to be made.
- Set main selector switch on the meter switch to the correct measurement type, (i.e. current) and range for the measurement to be made. When selecting the range, ensure that the maximum range is above the expected reading anticipated. The range on the DMM can then be reduced as necessary. However by selecting a range that is too high, it prevents the meter being overloaded.
- When the measuring the current, optimise the range for the best reading. If possible enable all the leading digits to not read zero, and in this way the greatest number of significant digits can be read.
- Once the reading is complete, it is a wise precaution to place the probes into the voltage measurement sockets and turn the range to maximum voltage. In this way if the meter is accidentally connected without thought for the range used, there is little chance of damage to the meter. This may not be true if it left set for a current reading, and the meter is accidentally connected across a high voltage point!
Following these steps it is very easy to measure current using any digital multimeter.
How to measure ac current with a multimeter
It is often necessary to measure AC current. Although the same basic steps are sued for taking the AC current measurement as when a normal DC measurement is taken, there are a few additional points to note.
The differences in the measurement result from the fact that the multimeter has to rectify the alternating waveform to enable it to measure AC current. For a digital multimeter the main difference is that the measurement type switch must be set to measure AC current rather than DC current..
For an analogue multimeter the situation is a little different. As an analogue multimeter does not contain any active electronics, the diode rectifier used to rectify the alternating waveform has a certain turn on voltage and this will affect the low voltage end of some scales. Some meters may not be able to measure AC current, or they will have very restricted ranges..
Although it is not as common to measure electrical current as it is to measure voltage, it is nevertheless and important ability to be able to measure current. Also knowing how to measure current to gain the best of the multimeter is also important.